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理性之诗《奥德赛》——神性走向人性的第一步

时间:2020-07-05 19:05:54  来源:本站独家发布  作者:姚孟君[1]
理性之诗《奥德赛》——神性走向人性的第一步
姚孟君[1]
(四川大学外国语学院,硕士研究生)
摘要:在人类有自我认识之前,一直用神来解释人与自然,社会的关系。到了古希腊时期,著名的神话故事已经体现出了神性逐渐转向人类理性的趋势。《奥德赛》是古希腊游吟诗人荷马的神话史诗,也是人类的“理性之诗”。在这个充满神性的史诗里也埋藏了许多关于人类理性的伏笔。在《奥德赛》中,奥德赛对回乡之路上遇到困难的种种反应都表明了对人本身的发现和认知及对神性的抵抗。而史诗《奥德赛》之所以能经得住时间的洗礼至今仍然为众人所追捧,成为人类智力走向“史书文明”的第一步的主要原因之一也是因为其对人的发现与赞扬,突出了人的智慧,理性,意志和能力,同时也反映出了古希腊社会人们对人类理性,自由和人文主义的探索已有所成就。
关键词:古希腊;《奥德赛》;神性;人类理性
Introduction
The Mediterranean, thanks to its special geographical location, has become a whirlpool of world culture convergence. It is a peaceful inland sea and lies between Europe, Asia and Africa. In the ancient world, navigation
 developed first,and it is also a sea extending in all directions, expanding as the development of human beings, on which the sea routes shuttle between east and west seas. During the voyage, the communication of people and the exchange of goods is also the basic medium of cultural communication. Ancient Greece was located in the Mediterranean, which naturally became fertile soil for the whole of western civilization. Reason and humanism are two of ancient Greek achievement. It is ancient Greeks who first defined the individual by his capacity to reason. Every aspect of Greek civilization ——science, philosophy,art, literature, politics,  historical writing--showed a growing reliance on human reason and a diminishing dependence on the gods.
The famous ancient Greek mythological system has provided endless motif and material for world literature and culture, becoming an indispensable part of literature and culture. Although ancient Greek mythology does not depict “human”stories, according to archaeological findings, Greek mythology is based on history. The past of Greek mythology reflects the story of the present, the gods, the heroes of the world, all with human shadows. Myth is the beginning of documenting western civilization. It also reflects the way of life and thinking of the ancient Greek people, and records human history in a metaphorical way, which has shown the rational thinking of the ancient Greek nation on people and the world. Homer, the ancient Greek bard, has two world-renowned mythological epics. The one is Iliad, which is called the “Poem of Power” of human beings, while the other Odyssey is the "Poem of Reason" of human beings, and the reason here refers to the ability of preliminary cognition and judgment which developed in the wilderness of ignorance.[2] Homer's Epic Odyssey mainly about the hero Odysseus who returned home with ten years after the Trojan war. The Odyssey contains more than 12,000 lines and is also divided into 24 volumes. The poet describes the ten years’ sea adventures of Odysseus in flashback way in the forty days before his arrival at home. These 10 years of thrilling experience contains many ancient myths, reflects the imagination of the processing of natural phenomena and the ancient Greeks how struggle with and defeat the nature. The story of how Odysseus deal with these difficult highlights his wit and bravery. The whole process seems to be masterful by the Gods of Olympus on his way home, but Odysseus himself was involved, for example, his courage, wisdom and will. The language of the story is fluent and dripping, the plot is breathtaking and exciting, highlighting the heroic spirit of the Odysseus, also made Odyssey unique.
Through so many centuries, this epic has been having thousands of research topics, such as going back home as a kind of lure. And this paper will combine the previous literature and materials to explore and analyze this epic from the perspective of “human reason” and “human”, which also reflects the development of ancient Greece, one of the Mediterranean civilizations.
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